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The Mangrove red snapper (commonly called mangrove jack within Australia), Lutjanus argentimaculatus is a species of snapper. It is also known as creek red bream, the Stuart evader, dog bream, mangrove red snapper, purple sea perch, purple sea-perch, red bass, red bream, red perch, red reef bream, river roman or rock barramundi.
Coloration of the mangrove red snapper ranges from burnt orange to copper, to bronze and dark reddish-brown, depending on its age and environment. Younger fish caught in estuarine areas are often darker than older fish taken from offshore reef areas, and exhibit lighter vertical bands down their flanks. In reef areas, mangrove red snappers are sometimes confused with two-spot red snapper or red bass (Lutjanus bohar), a known carrier of ciguatera toxin. The red bass, however, is usually darker in coloration, has fewer dorsal-fin spines, scale rows on the back that rise obliquely from the lateral line, and a deep groove from the nostrils to the eyes. Mangrove red snapper is a popular and important commercial and recreational fish throughout its range and considered to be an excellent food fish. The mangrove red snapper is a highly regarded table fish with firm, sweet-tasting, white flesh.
The orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), also known as the estuary cod, estuary rockcod, estuary rock-cod, green grouper is a species of fish in the family Serranidae. It is found in the western Pacific, the Indian Ocean, and the Red Sea. It has also been recorded in the Mediterranean Sea as a Lessepsian migrant. Orange-spotted grouper is an economically important marine fish cultured Southeast Asian countries.
Orange-spotted groupers begin life as a female, reaching sexual maturity at around 2 to 3 years old, when 25 to 30 centimetres in length. When the female reaches around 55 to 75 centimetres, at approximately four years old, it changes sex and becomes a male.
Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical mangrove, open seas, shallow seas, subtidal aquatic beds, coral reefs, estuarine waters, intertidal flats, and coastal saline lagoons. It is threatened by habitat loss and overfishing. This predatory fish reaches up to 1.2 m (3.9 ft) in length.